Stevia Plant comes in powder and extract
November 22 2016

Stevia typically refers to a crude preparation (powder or liquid) made from the leaves of the stevia plant. Such preparations contain a mixture of many components, not just those that give a sweet taste to the leaf.

A natural sweetener that:
Is 300 times sweeter than regular sugar, with minimal aftertaste
Had no calories
Was suitable for diabetics and those with high blood pressure
Appropriate for children
Did not cause cavities
Was heat stable and thus could be used for cooking and baking
Was a great alternative to synthetic sweeteners
Easily blended with other sweeteners, such as honey
And already widely and safely consumed in many countries around the world for decades.

Wouldn’t you think that many of our food products would already be sweetened by it instead of artificial sweeteners? Well, this remarkable,  no-calorie sweetener called stevia is, unfortunately, not a household name. It should be. I believe that eventually stevia will be one of the most popular and widely used sweeteners in the world. With the availability of stevia, there seems to be little reason to use artificial sweeteners such as aspartame and saccharin.

Stevia Liquid Extract 2 oz.
Physician Formulas web site
• Stevia plant pure liquid

EXTRACT which has been laboratory tested and certified to contain a minimum 90% of the steviosides, the active ingredient of Stevia while retaining the other beneficial components. Because of this, you can be assured that you are indeed buying a true Stevia extract and that it will be consistent in quality. This is a highly concentrated extract and should not be confused with less potent tinctures or extracts.

Stevia Clear Liquid Supplement Facts
Amount Per Milliliter
Stevia Extract 140 mg (20:1)

I have a question about the liquid available. Where do you get it and can you guarantee it is not from a genetically modified plant? If you can guarantee than please tell me how you know. An obsessed to stay away from GMO food person.
This plant is grown in Paraguay and it is not GMO.

The Stevia Cookbook
History of Stevia Plant

1. Donna’s Story–Dealings with the FDA
    The Envelope with the White Powder
The No-Calorie Miracle
FDA Ruling Sours Sweet Stevia Story
Sweet Revenge–The Dietary Supplement Law of 1994
Stevia Citizenship Reinstated: Will Sugar Industry Now Hobble on Cane?

3. How Safe Are Sweeteners?
    Artificial Sweeterners
Saccharin
Aspartame
Acesulfame K
Neotame
Stevia Safety
Our Daily Stevia Dose

4. The Many Faces of Stevia Plant
    Fresh Leaves

Dried Leaves
Green Stevia Powder
White Stevia Extract
Liquid Concentrates

5. Staying Healthy the Stevia Way
    A Godsend to those with Diabetes

Stevia and Weight Loss
Stevia and Tooth Decay
Stevia and High Blood Pressure–stevia helps lower blood pressure
Pregnancy
Anti-Aging

Practical Tips
Those who are novices at using stevia often make the mistake of using too much. Since stevia is 300 times sweeter than sugar, excessive amounts can lead to over-sweetness and an aftertaste. Generally, one teaspoon of stevia would be equivalent to one cup of sugar, while a quarter teaspoon would be equivalent to one tablespoon of sugar. Stevia is available in concentrated liquid form, and often two to four drops of stevia liquid added to tea or coffee is sufficient to sweeten the drink.

Stevia helpful for diabetes and hypertension, high blood pressure
The popularity of stevia continues to grow as more and more people find out about this amazing no-calorie herbal sweetener. One of the primary constituents of stevia that gives it its sweet taste is stevioside, which has been commercialized as a sweetener in Japan for more than 25 years. Lately, studies have shown that stevia, in addition to being a sweetener, has certain health benefits, too, particularly for diabetics and those with elevated blood pressure.

Physiological effects
Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Activities of Stevioside and Its Metabolite Steviol on THP-1 Cells.
J Agric Food Chem. 2000; Boonkaewwan C, Toskulkao C, Vongsakul M. Departments of Physiology and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Stevioside, a natural noncaloric sweetener isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, possesses anti-inflammatory and antitumor promoting properties; however, no information is available to explain its activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of stevioside and its metabolite, steviol. Stevioside at 1 mM significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and slightly suppressed nitric oxide release in THP-1 cells without exerting any direct toxic effect, whereas steviol at 100 microM did not. Activation of IKKbeta and transcription factor NF-kappaB were suppressed by stevioside, as demonstrated by Western blotting. Furthermore, only stevioside induced TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and nitric oxide release in unstimulated THP-1 cells. Release of TNF-alpha could be partially neutralized by anti-TLR4 antibody. This study suggested that stevioside attenuates synthesis of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells by interfering with the IKKbeta and NF-kappaB signaling pathway, and stevioside-induced TNF-alpha secretion is partially mediated through TLR4.

Diabetes sweetener, blood sugar lowering
Stevioside reduces postprandial blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, indicating beneficial effects on the glucose metabolism. Stevia has been used for many years in the treatment of diabetes among Indians in Paraguay and Brazil. However, the mechanism for the blood glucose-lowering effect remains unknown. A study conducted at Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark found that stevioside enhances insulin secretion from mouse pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose. The researchers state, “Stevioside stimulates insulin secretion via a direct action on pancreatic beta cells. The results indicate that the compounds may have a potential role as an anti-hyperglycemic agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.”

Q. Nowhere in your stevia article could I find the information I was looking for… does stevia cause glycation ?
A. Since stevia is not a sugar and does not have calories, we doubt if it causes glycation.

Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects.
Gregersen S. Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
Metabolism. 2004.
Stevioside is present in the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SrB). Extracts of SrB have been used for the treatment of diabetes in, for example, Brazil, although a positive effect on glucose metabolism has not been unequivocally demonstrated. We studied the acute effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic patients. We hypothesize that supplementation with stevioside to a test meal causes a reduction in postprandial blood glucose. Twelve type 2 diabetic patients were included in an acute, paired cross-over study. A standard test meal was supplemented with either 1 g of stevioside or 1 g of maize starch (control). Blood samples were drawn at 30 minutes before and for 240 minutes after ingestion of the test meal. Compared to control, stevioside reduced the incremental area under the glucose response curve by 18%. The insulinogenic index (AUC(i,insulin)/AUC(i,glucose)) was increased by approximately 40% by stevioside compared to control. Stevioside tended to decrease glucagon levels, while it did not significantly alter the area under the insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide curves. In conclusion, stevioside reduces postprandial blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, indicating beneficial effects on the glucose metabolism. Stevioside may be advantageous in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects.
Gregersen S,. Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
Metabolism. 2004.
Stevioside is present in the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SrB). Extracts of SrB have been used for the treatment of diabetes in, for example, Brazil, although a positive effect on glucose metabolism has not been unequivocally demonstrated. We studied the acute effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic patients. We hypothesize that supplementation with stevioside to a test meal causes a reduction in postprandial blood glucose. Twelve type 2 diabetic patients were included in an acute, paired cross-over study. A standard test meal was supplemented with either 1 g of stevioside or 1 g of maize starch (control). Blood samples were drawn at 30 minutes before and for 240 minutes after ingestion of the test meal. Compared to control, stevioside reduced the incremental area under the glucose response curve by 18%. The insulinogenic index (AUC(i,insulin)/AUC(i,glucose)) was increased by approximately 40% by stevioside compared to control (P <.001). Stevioside tended to decrease glucagon levels, while it did not significantly alter the area under the insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide curves. In conclusion, stevioside reduces postprandial blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, indicating beneficial effects on the glucose metabolism. Stevioside may be advantageous in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Hypertension, lowering blood sugar
In a 2-year study in Chinese patients with mild hypertension, oral stevioside significantly decreased blood pressure compared with placebo. No significant adverse effects were noted.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Taiwan studied 106 Chinese hypertensive subjects ages ranging from 28 to 75 years. Each subject was given capsules containing 250 mg stevioside or placebo three times daily and followed-up at monthly intervals for 1 year (the average person who uses stevia ingests about 100 mg a day of stevioside). After 3 months, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the stevioside group decreased by about 6 points, and the effect persisted during the whole year. Blood biochemistry including lipid and glucose showed no major changes. No significant adverse effects were observed.

Stevia lowers blood pressure
A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness and tolerability of oral stevioside in human hypertension. Taipei Wan Fang Hospital, Taiwan.: Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000.
A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken. This study group consisted of 106 Chinese hypertensive subjects with diastolic blood pressure between 95 and 110 mmHg and ages ranging from 28 to 75 years with 60 subjects (men 34, women 26) allocated to active treatment and 46 (men 19, women 27) to placebo treatment. Each subject was given capsules containing stevioside (250 mg) or placebo thrice daily and followed-up at monthly intervals for 1 year. After 3 months, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the stevioside group decreased significantly, and the effect persisted during the whole year. Blood biochemistry parameters including lipid and glucose showed no significant changes. No significant adverse effect was observed and quality of life assessment showed no deterioration. This study shows that oral stevioside is a well tolerated and effective modality that may be considered as an alternative or supplementary therapy for patients with hypertension.

Recommendations, review
Hopefully, with time, stevia sweetener can be added to a variety of sodas, candies, gums, and other foods in the US, just like it currently is in Japan and other countries. And we could see stevia packets at restaurants.

References
Bertoni, Moises. Kaa he-he, its nature and its properties. Paraguayan Scientific Annals. 1905.
Blackburn GL, Kanders BS, Lavin PT, Keller SD, Whatley J. The effect of aspartame as part of a multidisciplinary weight-control program on short- and long-term control of body weight. Am J Clin Nutr, 1997.
Boech EMA, Humboldt G. Cardio-circulatory effects of total water extract in normal persons and of stevioside in rats. Ciencia e Cultura, 1981.
Brady, George, American Trade Commissioner, Memo for Latin American Division, 1921.
Bridel M, Lavielle R. Le principe a saveur sucree du Kaa’-he’-e (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). J Pharm Clin, 1931.
Brown JP. Mutation Res, 1980.
Crammer B, Ikan R. Progress in the chemistry and properties of rebaudioside; in Greenby TH (ed): Developments in Sweeteners. London, Elsevier, 1987.
Curi R, Alvarez M, Bazotte RB, Botion LM, Godoy JL, Bracht A. Effect of Stevia plant on glucose tolerance in normal adult humans. Braz J Med Biol Res 19(6):771-4, 1986. “It is generally accepted that the inhibition of gluconeogenesis is able to lead to hypoglycemia. Thus, some substances which inhibit gluconeogenesis are therapeutic to diabetes. It is possible that the stevia extract, by increasing the mitochondrial respiration rate and inhibiting the gluconeogenetic pathway, can indeed lead to hypoglycemia. Nevertheless, a possible effect of this plant on insulin secretion or peripheral action should be considered.”
D’Agostino M, De Simone F, Pizza C, Aquino R. Sterols in Stevia reabudiana Bertoni. Boll soc Ital Biol Sper, 1984.
Das S, Das AK, Murphy RA, Punwani IC, Nasution MP, Kinghorn AD. Evaluation of the cariogenic potential of the intense natural sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A. Caries Res, 1992. “It could be argued that the concentration of the sweeteners used in this experiment was very low in comparison to that of sucrose. However, due to the fact that both these intense sweeteners are 300 or more times sweeter than sucrose, their normal human usage would be at very low concentrations.”
Fletcher, Hewitt, Jr. The sweet herb of Paraguay. Chemurgic Digest, 1955.
Hubler MO, Bracht A, Kelmer-Bracht AM. Influence of stevioside on hepatic glycogen levels in fasted rats. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol, 1994. Single doses of stevioside given orally to 24-hour fasted rats increased glycogen deposition in the liver. “It can be concluded that stevioside exerts a stimulatory action on hepatic glycogen synthesis under gluconeogenic conditions.”
Ishii EL, Schwab AJ, Bracht A. Inhibition of monosaccharide transport in the intact rat liver by stevioside. Biochemical Pharmacology, 1987.
Ishii-Iwamoto EL, Bracht A. Stevioside is not metabolized in the isolated perfused rat liver. Res Commun Mol pathol Pharmacol 87:167-75, 1995. Stevioside was perfused into rat livers for two hours to see whether hepatic tissue metabolized this chemical. The concentration of stevioside remained constant during the whole perfusion time. Steviol was not detected.
Isima N, Kakayama O. Sensory evaluation of stevioside as a sweetener. Natl Food Res Inst, 1976.
Kelmer Bracht A, Alvarez M, Bracht A. Effects of Stevia rebaudiana natural products on rat liver mitochondria. Biochem Pharmacol, 1985.
Kinghorn AD, Soejarto DD, Nanzakkara NP, Compadre CM, Makapugay HC, Hovanec-Brown JM, Medon PJ, Kamath SK. A phytochemical screening procedure for sweet ent-kaurene glycosides in the genus Stevia. J Nat Prod, 1984.
Kinghorn AD, Soejarto DD. Current status of stevioside as a sweetening agent for human use. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research, Academic Press Inc. (London), 1985.
Klongpanichpak S, Temcharoen P, Toskulkao C, Apibal S, Glinsukon T. Lack of mutagenicity of stevioside and steviol in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. J Med Assoc Thai Sep, 1997. Stevioside and steviol, at the concentrations up to 50 mg and 2 mg per plate, respectively showed no mutagenic effect on both tester strains, either in the presence or absence of metabolic activating system derived from the sodium phenobarbital and 5,6-benzoflavone pretreated liver S9 fractions from various animal species including rat, mouse, hamster and guinea pig. Stevioside and steviol at the concentrations up to 50 mg and 2 mg per plate, respectively showed no mutagenic effect on both tester strains either in the presence or absence of metabolic activating system. However, at the high concentration both stevioside and steviol showed some toxic effects on both tester strains. The toxic effect was decreased in the presence of the metabolic activating system.
Lee CK. Carbohydrate sweeteners: structural requirements for taste. World Rev Nutr Diet , 1979.
Matsui M, Matsui K, Kawasaki Y, Oda Y, Noguchi T, et al. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of stevioside and steviol using six in vitro and one in vivo mutagenicity assays. Mutagenesis 11:573-579, 1996. The genetic toxicities of stevioside and its aglycone, steviol, were examined with seven mutagenicity tests using bacteria (reverse mutation assay, forward mutation assay, umu test and rec assay), cultured mammalian cells (chromosomal aberration test and gene mutation assay) and mice (micronucleus test). Stevioside did not exhibit any mutagenicity. Steviol, though, produced dose-related positive responses in some mutagenicity tests.
Mauri P, Catalano G, Gardana C, Peitta P. Analysis of stevia glycosides by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 1996.
Melis MS, Sainati AR. Effect of calcium and verapamil on renal function of rats during treatment with stevioside. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):257-62, 1991. The data were consistent with the possibility that stevioside may act as a calcium channel antagonist, as in the case of verapamil.
Melis MS. Renal excretion of stevioside in rats. J Nat Prod 55(5):688-90, 1992. Stevioside is secreted by renal tubular epithelium and induces diuresis and natriuresis and a fall in renal tubular reabsorption of glucose.
Melis MS. Chronic administration of aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana in rats: renal effects. J Ethnopharmacol, 1995.
Melis MS. A crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana increases the renal plasma flow of normal and hypertensive rats. Braz J Med Biol Res 29(5):660-75, 1996. Stevia extract, at doses higher than used for sweetening purposes, dilates blood vessels in animals who have either normal or high blood pressure.
Miyazaki Y, Watanabe H, Watanabe T. Studies on the cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Yield and stevioside content of 2-year-old plants. Eisei Shikenjo Hokuku, 1978.
Mosettig E, Nes WR. Stevioside. II. The structure of the aglucon. J Org Chem 20:884-899, 1955.
Nakayama K, Kasahara D, Yamamoto F. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of stevioside in rats. J. Food Hygiene Soc Japan, 1986. “Stevioside was administered orally at a dose of 125 mg/kg to Wistar rats and its disposition and metabolism were studied. Analysis of intestinal contents, feces and bile showed that stevioside is decomposed by cecal flora to steviol and sugars, indicating that steviol and these sugars are absorbed from the cecum, distributed throughout the whole body, and excreted mainly into feces and expired air.”
Nunes P, Pereira NA. The effect of stevia rebaudiana on the fertility of experimental animals. Revista Brasileira de Farmacia, 1988. A tea infusion in concentrations of 1 and 5 % was administered by gavage to mature female mice. The fertility of the mature females was reduced by 14% after intra-gastric administration of the tea and during the mating period. However, if given before mating, the numbers of uterine implants and the young per litter were not significantly lowered. Fertility was also reduced by approximately 20 and 40% after administration of the tea at 1 and 5% infusions, respectively, during a period of 12 days before mating. We conclude that the crude extract of stevia inhibits the cyclic mechanism of reproduction of mature female mice.
Oliveira-Filho RM, Uehara OA, Minetti CA, Valle LB. Chronic administration of aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana in rats: endocrine effects. Gen Pharmacol 20(2):187-91, 1989. “It is concluded that if the stevioside extract does have some potential to decrease rat fertility at all, this effect is almost certainly not exerted on the male.
Olney JW, Farber NB, Spitznagel E, Robins LN. Increasing brain tumor rates: is there a link to aspartame? J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 1996.
Pezzuto JM, Compadre CM, Swanson SM, Nanayakkara D, Kinghorn AD. Metabolically activated steviol, the aglycone of stevioside, is mutagenic. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 1985. “Complete metabolic conversion of stevioside to an active mutagenic species by human enzyme systems involved in the biotransformation of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics is possible. It therefore appears that adequate information is currently not available to condone widespread human consumption of stevioside. Additional studies relevant to safety assessment are required. “Finally, it should be emphasized that no reports have thus far appeared indicating that adverse effects have resulted from human use of stevia products. Other substances found in the diet are known to mediate mutagenic responses with no apparent impact on health (Brown, 1980).”
Planas Mazzei G, Kuc J. Contraceptive properties of Stevia rebaudiana. Science 162 (857):1007, Nov 29,1968. This study found a reduction in fertility in female rats given stevia decoction. According to the article, Paraguayan Matto Grosso Indian tribes have been known to drink stevia tea as a form of contraceptive. Later inquiries made in several locations in northeastern Paraguay did not confirm the use of stevia for contraceptive purposes (Soejarto, 1983).
Schleicher E, Wagner E, Nerlich A. Increased accumulation of the glycoxidation product N (epsilon)-(carboxymethyl) lysien in human tissues in diabetes and aging. J Clin Invest 99:457-68, 1997.
Schleicher E, Wieland O. Kinetic analysis of glycation as a tool for assessing the half-life of proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 884:199-205, 1996.
Shibata H, Sawa Y, Oka T, Sonoke S, Kim KK, Yoshioka SM. Steviol and steviol-glycoside glucosyltransferase activities in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni–purification and partial characterization. Arch Biochem Biophys 321(2):390-6, 1995. The leaves of Stevia contain sweet compounds that are glycosides of the diterpene derivative steviol. Two glucosyltransferases acting on steviol and steviol-glycosides were isolated from Stevia.
Soejarto DD. Potential sweetening agents of plant origin, field search for sweet-tasting Stevia spieces: Economic Botany 77, 1983.
Suttajit M, Vinitketkaumnuen U, Meevatee U, Buddhasukh D. Mutagenicity and human chromosomal effect of stevioside, a sweetener from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Environ Health Perspect Suppl 101 (3):53-6, 1993. “This study indicates that stevioside and steviol are neither mutagenic nor clastogenic in vitro at the limited doses; however, in vivo genotoxic tests and long-term effects of stevioside and steviol are yet to be investigated.”
Toskulkao C, Deechakawan W, et al. Nephrotoxic effects of stevioside and steviol in rat renal cortical slices. J Clin Biochem Nutr 16(2):123-131, 1994. Subcutaneous administration of stevioside at 1.5 g/Kg body weight to rats for 9 hours was nephrotoxic.
Toskulkao C, Sutheerawattananon M. Effects of stevioside, a natural sweetener, on intestinal glucose absorption in hamsters. Nutr Res 14(11):1711-1720, 1994. Oral administration by gavage of a high dose of stevioside at 2.5 g/kg body weight/day for 12 weeks caused inhibition of glucose absorption, but lower doses of 0.5 and 1 g/kg BW/day had no effect. The high doses of stevioside caused a reduction of body weight.
Toyada K, Matsui H, Shoda T, Uneyama C, Takada K, Takahashi M. Assessment of the carcinogenicity of stevioside in F344 rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 35(6):597-603, 1997.
Von Schmelling GA, et al. Stevia plant Evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect in alloxanized rabbits. Ciencia e Cultura, 1977. Stevia extract, administered to alloxanized rabbits in a dose of 12 mg /kg of body weight, had a hypoglycemic effect.

Home – Tribulus Terrestris Extract

Q. I have my son on the specific carbohydrate diet as he was diagnosed with an overgrowth of harmful bacteria. Basically, he can only have monosaccharides, not disaccharides or polysaccharides which feed the bacteria. I cannot seem to find out for sure if stevia sweetener fits into one or any of these categories. Is it any of the above?
A. Stevia has a unique, complicated biochemical structure and it is not a saccharide.

Chinese stevia company joins forces with US stevia company
2009 – A venture has been made between China-based stevia supplier Sunwin International Neutraceuticals and ingredients and flavours producer WILD Flavors, which has its headquarters in Kentucky. The two companies have finalised an agreement to sell, market, and distribute Sunwin International’s stevia extracts and formulate proprietary, natural sweetening blends for food and beverage products. The deal involves WILD taking a $3 million equity stake in Sunwin, which will be used to fund expansion of Sunwin’s Reb A production capacity.